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The only thing that doesn’t change from year to year is the amount of cash interest paid on the bond. To calculate cash interest, we multiply the face value of the bonds ($100,000) by the coupon rate (9%) to get $9,000. The cash interest is calculated by taking the coupon rate of the bond (9%) and multiplying it by the bond’s face value ($100,000), resulting in $9,000 of cash interest. In the first period, we record $93,855.43 as the carrying amount of the bond.

You can then calculate your monthly payment by taking this sum total and dividing it into an equal number of monthly payment periods representing the total duration of your loan. Therefore, $730,445 divided into 360 monthly payments results in a monthly payment amount of $2,029.01. Estimating the functional lifespan or the maturity of intangible assets or bonds and loans is required. It is usually set by the market, expressed in percentages and constant throughout the debt’s lifetime, although the decreasing amount of money owed in the case of loans makes the payments increasingly smaller. Since the bond has a life of 5 years, the annual amortization of bond discount would equal $1,516 ($7,580 divided by 5). The critical observation to make is that the straight line method is a much more simple calculation. Straight line amortization of premiums or discounts results in the same amount of interest expense, amortization, and cash interest in every single year until the bond is repaid.

The price at which a company sells its bonds — and the resulting premium or discount — is an important factor, and it must be accounted for. The straight line amortization concept is commonly used by banks to create mortgage and loan amortization schedules. This approach is relatively simple and is slightly different from the approach used in bonds amortization. This is because bonds can be issued at a premium or a discount and even at the market rate.

What Are the Difference Between Annual Straight Line Amortization vs. Effective Interest Amortization?.

Posted: Wed, 02 Nov 2016 07:00:00 GMT [source]

It is most useful when an asset’s value decreases steadily over time at around the same rate. Straight line basis is calculated by dividing the difference between an asset’s cost and its expected salvage value by the number of years it is expected to be used.

Premiums are amortized in similar fashion to discounts under the effective interest method. Suppose a company issues $100,000 in 10-year, 9% coupon bonds at a premium to face value.

- Salvage ValueSalvage value or scrap value is the estimated value of an asset after its useful life is over.
- Companies amortize a patent using its useful life, although a patent is legally valid for 17 years.
- Companies can purchase patents from other companies for existing inventions or through the federal government for new inventions.
- For $70,000, having an estimated useful life of seven years with no salvage value at the end.
- In other words, companies can stretch the cost of assets over many different time frames, which lets them benefit from the asset without deducting the full cost from net income .
- Similarly to mortgage professionals, bank loan officers often formulate payment plans for their clients using the straight-line amortization method.

Kirsten is also the founder and director of Your Best Edit; find her on LinkedIn and Facebook. For $70,000, having an estimated useful life of seven years with no salvage value at the end. This post is to be used for informational purposes only and does not constitute straight line amortization legal, business, or tax advice. Each person should consult his or her own attorney, business advisor, or tax advisor with respect to matters referenced in this post. Bench assumes no liability for actions taken in reliance upon the information contained herein.

The journal entries for the remaining years will be similar if all of the bonds remain outstanding. To demonstrate the use of the straight-line method, we will return to the Valenzuela Corporation example. Straight line basis is popular because it is easy to calculate and understand, although it also has several drawbacks. Full BioAmy is an ACA and the CEO and founder of OnPoint Learning, a financial training company delivering training to financial professionals. She has nearly two decades of experience in the financial industry and as a financial instructor for industry professionals and individuals. Daniel Liberto is a journalist with over 10 years of experience working with publications such as the Financial Times, The Independent, and Investors Chronicle. He received his masters in journalism from the London College of Communication.

As a bond discount arises when coupon rate is lower than the market rate, the bond discount amortization must be added to the interest payment to arrive at market-equivalent interest expense. In the straight-line method of amortization of bond discount or premium, bond discount or premium is charged equally in each period of the bond’s life. Straight line amortization is always the easiest way to account for discounts or premiums on bonds. Under the straight line method, the premium or discount on the bond is amortized in equal amounts over the life of the bond.

It is usually set by the market, expressed in percentages and constant throughout the debts lifetime, although the decreasing amount of money owed in the case of loans makes the payments increasingly smaller. In addition to straight line depreciation, there are also other methods of calculating depreciation of an asset. Different methods of asset depreciation are used to more accurately reflect the depreciation and current value of an asset. A company may elect to use one depreciation method over another in order to gain tax or cash flow advantages. To illustrate the discount on bonds payable, let’s assume that in early December 2020 a corporation prepares a 9% $100,000 bond dated January 1, 2021. The interest payments of $4,500 ($100,000 x 9% x 6/12) will be required on each June 30 and December 31 until the bond matures on December 31, 2025.

The straight-line method of amortization in the investment industry applies to bonds. A company sells bonds to raise large sums of money https://online-accounting.net/ from individual small investors. For instance, if a company needs $100,000 in loans, it might issue one hundred $1,000 bonds.

The straight-line method of amortization is designed to provide borrowers with a fixed, recurring monthly payment that remains fixed throughout the duration of the loan. Using the straight-line method of amortization, you can make responsible decisions regarding your mortgage and ensure that you are capable of meeting the requirements outlined by your lender.

- Full BioAmy is an ACA and the CEO and founder of OnPoint Learning, a financial training company delivering training to financial professionals.
- This method can be used to depreciate assets where variation in usage is an important factor, such as cars based on miles driven or photocopiers on copies made.
- The process can be accomplished by calculating the sum of your principal balance and the total interest on your loan as dictated by the lender.
- In the case of bank loans and mortgages, each month’s interest is calculated as a percentage of the total sum of money that still needs to be repaid.
- Suppose a company issues $100,000 in 10-year, 9% coupon bonds at a premium to face value.

This method can be used to depreciate assets where variation in usage is an important factor, such as cars based on miles driven or photocopiers on copies made. Accountants calculate amortization as a means of spreading the cost of an intangible asset across all the years of its profitable life span and determining the value lost. If a company’s profits are unstable, it may choose to use this method of amortization which will help them avoid paying tax on periodic basis. This is attributable to the discount account, which is offset against bonds payable in arriving at the carrying value . Determining the interest to be paid for the intangible asset such as the interest that will be paid out where investors put their money in a bond. To calculate depreciation using a straight line basis, simply divide net price by the number of useful years of life the asset has.